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What makes even siblings who share the same family, cultural, social, economic and educational backgrounds, different from each other? How is it that people in the same household cannot get along with each other, while people across nations and cultures come together to collaborate in the name of science, arts, sports and commerce?

What makes some people selfish and others altruistic? Why do some people seek comforts and pleasures, while others seek success and power and yet others riches and possessions while yet others abandon everything and go to Himalayas?

Why do some people keep themselves busy always while others are lazy? How is it that some people keep their homes tidy and clean while others keep it messy?

Why is it that people can easily articulate what they are not but fail to find words to describe what they are? Why is it that people get distracted by fads, platitudes and peer pressure, and fail to recognize, articulate and align themselves with their true selves?

Why is Japan clean and tidy and India dirty and messy? What makes China and India, two old civilizations next each other, so different from each other?

Why can't some children follow directions while most do? Why do some children show interest in the academics while others do not? What makes some children bullies and others shy, and yet others indifferent?

What drives people to give up their lives and take other's lives in mostly meaningless wars? Why do some people resist authority in any form, while others obey it in its most ridiculous forms, readily submitting to it?

Why are people superstitious, across the cultures, across educational and economic backgrounds? Why are a few people fanatic about religions and most shun religious controversies, yet feed the religious institutions through donations? Why most people feel comfortable sticking to the religions they are born into, while others detest them and seek alternatives?

Why are suicides rates higher in military than among civilian populations? Why are suicide rates higher among men than women? Why did stress and depression become so common in the modern times?

How is it possible that people from different cultures that grew in isolation for millennia in every part of the world able to come together in the modern globalised world, in a span of a few decades? Why is it that politics and trade and innovation spring up in every part of the world, regardless of the culture, education facilities, economic resources and such?

Why do we miss no opportunity to talk about the uniqueness of each child, yet live with education systems that deliver the same curriculum, same instruction and same tests for every child?

How does diversity sustain and flourish, in spite of all the efforts by the regimes, religions and educational systems, social philosophies to homogenize the populations? How is it that the progress of science in the last few centuries could not make even a small dent in the prevalence of religions?

Studying these questions, each one by itself, is social sciences as usual. Developing unifying and elegant models of human nature that answer all these diverse questions, with as few assumptions as possible, is Diversity Science.

And it doesn't exist, at least in the sense described here. And so, it needs to be created. This book discusses the need for the new field of social sciences called Diversity Science and presents a framwork called Foaum, which lays a theoretical foundation for it.

This book goes beyond the oft-discussed topics in diversity such as cultural diversity, ethnic diversity and gender diversity. It delves deep into the core of what makes a person unique and distinct from all the others, which is called Inner Diversity. This book also discusses why and how Nature creates this diversity and how it is essential for the humanity to function, survive and thrive.

This book introduces a comprehensive framework called Foaum (pronounced same as foam, is an abbreviation for Framework of Aum, Aum being a Sanskrit word, which means everything), which consists of several new models, concepts, theories and sub-frameworks. Some of these models and frameworks bring many known, but seemingly disjointed concepts and theories together, from the concept of free-will to the theory of evolution. And the others bring completely new insights into the nature of individuals and societies.

This book offers a single unifying model to discuss and study what it calls three grand realities, 1) internal reality - the reality of emotions, urges, capabilities, aspirations, etc. 2) external reality - the reality of societies, economies, cultures, nations, countries, communities, corporations, institutions, etc. and 3) the sublime reality - the reality of mystery, beauty, intrigue, uncertainity, unknown, that sorrounds us, which begs such deep questions as purpose of life and meaning of universe. By examining the three Grand Realitis under one unfied model, this books offers several new and important insights into human nature and the interplay among individuals, societies and nature.

This book discusses the implications of Foaum to the many branches of social sciences such as Evolutionary Biology, Developmental Psychology, Educational Psychology, I/O psychology, Cognitive Sciences, Type/trait Theories, Social Psychology and Systems Theory. These various fields of social sciences, which evolved in isolation from each other share no common vocabulary or common theoritical foundation. The models and frameworks discussed in this book lay a common theoretical foundation and give a common vocabulary that can bring together all of these different fields.

This book also discusses many applications of these models and frameworks in the various areas of human activity such as educational systems, curriculum design, learning methods, organizational structures, team productivity, job satisfaction, parenting, matrimonial alliances, religious studies, rehabilitation services, children homes, policy making, marketing segmentation, product development, journalism, community development and social work.

Workshops are being conducted since 2009 based on Foaum for various audiences such as corporate workforce, parents and teachers, under various Initiatives. The Testimonials by the participants of these workshops, give a flavor of the practical applications of the Foaum.

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